Library and Archives Canada, Francis Pegahmagabow: Includes a biography, copy of his Attestation Paper, details from his Service Record and military medals, as well as a list of his First World War casualties. Before the motion could go through, Pegahmagabow resigned. An Ojibwa he grew up at the Wasauksing First Nation (Wasauksing) Band, on Parry Island located near Parry Sound, Ontario. [5] The Eagle was his spirit animal. Francis Pegahmagabow carried a spiritual item with him into battle, a Straight. He become an orphane at an early age and he had to be raised by the Shawanaga First Nation community. His father was Michael Pegahmagabow of the Parry Island First Nation and his mother Mary Contin of the Henvey Inlet First Nation, located further up the Georgian Bay's north shore. Although he was considered a war hero, Francis returned to Canada only to face the same persecution and poverty that he had experienced He was the most highly decorated Indigenous soldier in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of the First World War. A married father of six children, Pegahmagabow died on the Parry Island reserve in 1952 at the age of 61. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (/ˌpɛɡəməˈɡæboʊ/; March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was the First Nations soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I. Francis Pegahmagabow was an Ojibwe who lived with his parents. Some members of Francis’ band also considered him difficult to work with. [6] He was raised by elder Noah Nebimanyquod and grew up in Shawanaga, where he learned traditional skills such as hunting, fishing, and traditional medicine. After her husband’s death, Mary returned to her home of Henvey Inlet An Ojibwa he grew up at the Parry Island (Wasauksing) Band, near Parry Sound, Ontario. Veterans Affairs Canada, Remembering Those Who Served, Francis Pegahmagabow, "A Peaceful Man". Boyden speculated it was due to Pegahmagabow being a First Nations soldier, and that there may have been jealousy on the part of some officers who he felt might have been suspicious of the number of Germans Pegahmagabow claimed to have shot because he did not use an observer while sniping. Francis Pegahmagabow was born on what is now the First Nation reserve. His ultimate, though unachieved goal was to have the authority of the band council overrule that of the Indian agents. During the fighting, Pegahmagabow's battalion was given the task of launching an attack at Passchendaele. of his parents. [1], On August 30, 1918, during the Battle of the Scarpe, Pegahmagabow was involved in fighting off a German attack at Orix Trench near Upton Wood. Faunus Species. Only 37 other Canadian men received the honour of two bars. Age 59 years. , Francis Pegahmagabow: Includes a biography, copy of his Attestation Paper, details from his Service Record and military medals, as well as a list of his First World War casualties. The Regional First Nation governments claimed the islands as their own and Pegahmagabow and other chiefs tried in vain to get recognition of their status. His father was a man of the First Nation and his mother of the First Nation, located further up Bay's north shore. He is a member of the Indian Hall of Fame at the Woodland Centre in Brantford, Ontario, and his memory is also commemorated on a plaque honouring him and his regiment on the Rotary and Algonquin Regiment Fitness Trail in Parry Sound. Early Life Francis Pegahmagabow was an aboriginal who was born in Parry Sound, Ontario on March 9th 1889. that psychological trauma inflicted by his war experiences affected Francis’ public and private behaviour. [4] He had left school at the age of 12 and worked at lumber camps and fishing camps; he eventually became a marine firefighter. Francis’ life inspired the central fictional character in Joseph Boyden’s novel Three Day Road (2001). [9], On November 6/7, 1917, Pegahmagabow earned a Bar to his Military Medal for his actions in the Second Battle of Passchendaele. Over the course of the war, he was credited with the capture of approximately He contracted typhoid fever in 1913, but was nursed back Francis Pegahmagabow (1889–1952), a member of the Ojibwe nation, was born in Shawanaga, Ontario. [1] Initially, his commanding officer, Lieutenant Colonel Frank Albert Creighton, had nominated him for the Distinguished Conduct Medal, citing his disregard for danger and "faithfulness to duty",[1] but it was downgraded. Francis Pegahmagabow was born on March 9, 1889 at what is now Shawanaga First Nation, on the eastern shore of Georgian Bay, Ontario, the only child of Michael Pegahmagabow and Mary Contin. Koennecke, Franz M.. "Francis Pegahmagabow". on with the 23rd Regiment (Northern Pioneers) overseas contingent in August 1914. Personal Life Francis Pegahmagabow was married and had six children. It was a dangerous job, but Francis was an effective marksman and scout. He was one of 39 Canadian soldiers awarded the Military Medal and two bars for bravery. and excluded many other ethnic minorities in Canada from military service. Single. What was really inside I do not know. Only 38 other Canadian men received the honour of two bars. Owl Eyes, Fur, Wings, Description of Faunus Traits. First Nation, located on the northern shores of Georgian Bay. Sexuality. A life-size bronze statue of Francis Pegahmagabow, a little known hero of the First World War, will be erected in Parry Sound, Ont., in the spring of 2016. Indigenous rights advocate, war hero (born on 9 March 1891 on the Parry Island reserve, ON; died 5 August 1952 at Parry Island, ON). while he attended classes, Francis enlisted the help of the Parry Sound Crown attorney, Walter Lockwood Haight. I In Ojibwe his name was Binaaswi ("the wind that blows off"). He volunteered at the onset of the First World War and served overseas as a scout and sniper with the Canadian Expeditionary Force's 1st Battalion. Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. And fur along his neck, back, and the back of his arms up to the shoulder. Our team will be reviewing your submission and get back to you with any further questions. (Ojibwe). An old Indian recognized me, and gave me a tiny medicine-bag to protect me, saying I would shortly The event featured a strong military presence, including Lieutenant General Marquis Hainse, Commander of the Canadian Army, and a 50-soldier guard of honour. After a few months of training on Salisbury Plain, Francis and his regiment were sent to France in February 1915, along with the rest of the approximately 20,000-strong 1st Canadian Division (see Canadian Expeditionary Force). As a ghost he roamed the trenches, effectively taking out his enemies one by one. He was an Ojibwe Nishnaabe, a member of the Caribou clan, and part of the Wasauksing First Nation. [20] Canadian novelist Joseph Boyden's 2005 novel Three Day Road was inspired in part by Pegahmagabow. By 1916, however, as casualties rose overseas and the Canadian Expeditionary Force became increasingly desperate for volunteers, Indigenous soldiers (particularly Treaty Indians like Francis Pegahmagabow) were encouraged to enlist. to health by the Sisters of St. Joseph in Parry Sound. Francis Pegahmagabow was not only the most successful sniper of World War 1, but he is also among the most decorated aboriginal soldiers in history. Growing up in Shawanaga, Francis was raised according to the cultural customs and traditions of the Anishinaabe and suffered from chest pains for the rest of his life. In 2003, the Pegahmagabow family donated Francis’ medals and chief headdress to the Canadian War Museum in Ottawa. In June 1916, Francis fought at the Battle of Mount Sorrel, where he captured many German prisoners. After his service In 1945, Francis served two terms as supreme chief of the Native Indian Government, an early In 1967, Francis became a member of Canada’s Indian Hall of Fame, a display set up in Brantford, Ontario to highlight Indigenous leaders in Canadian history. Honoured by the Canadian Forces by naming the 3rd Canadian Ranger Patrol Group HQ Building at CFB Borden after him. One of the most highly decorated For example, many snipers and scouts wore moccasins in the field, as they were much quieter than army boots. Francis Pegahmagabow : biography March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952 In 2003 the Pegahmagabow family donated his medals, and chief head dress to the Canadian War Museum where they can be seen as of 2010 as part of the World War I display. I wore it in the trenches.” Pegahmagabow and He volunteered at the onset of the First World War and served overseas as a scout and sniper with the Canadian Expeditionary Force's 1st Battalion. Soldier of World War I. While there he decorated his army tent with traditional symbols including a deer, the symbol of his clan. Francis also indicated his year of birth as 1891, although provincial commemorative plaques and some historical sources place his year of birth as 1889. [17] Honoured by the Canadian Forces by naming the 3rd Canadian Ranger Patrol Group HQ Building at CFB Borden after him. [15] This caused intense disagreements with Daly and eventually led to Pegahmagabow being deposed as chief. Frustrated by the government’s treatment of Indigenous peoples and veterans, Francis became involved in local and federal politics. Despite his serious injuries, he soon returned to action and received a second bar to his Military Medal following his valorous actions at the Battle of the Scarpe in August 1918. go into great danger. [2] Daly and other agents who came in contact with Pegahmagabow were incredibly frustrated by his attempts, in his words, to free his people from "white slavery". When the battalion's reinforcements became lost, Pegahmagabow was instrumental in guiding them and ensuring that they reached their allocated spot in the line. Francis Pegahmagabow has been listed as one of the Warfare good articles under the good article criteria. Earned his first bar to the Military Medal at the Battle of Passchendaele. Thanks for contributing to The Canadian Encyclopedia. He is a member of the Indian Hall of Fame at the Woodland Centre in Brantford, Ontario, and his memory is also commemorated on a plaque honouring him and his regiment on the Rotary and Algonquin Regiment Fitness Trail in Parry Sound. When the war was over, Francis had become one of the most highly decorated Indigenous soldiers in Canadian military history. Did You Know?Many Indigenous soldiers practiced their traditional customs and beliefs during the First World War. 1914, Francis indicated his occupation as “Fireman” and added “None” under next-of-kin. [17] In 1943, he became the Supreme Chief of the Native Independent Government, an early First Nations organization. During this time, he sent letters to the prime minister and policy In hindsight, some historians believe All rights reserved. After an internal power struggle, Francis was ousted as chief in 1925. Francis was left to be raised by Noah Nebimanyquod, the same man who had raised Francis’ father after the deaths He was also a member of the National Indian Brotherhood, a precursor to the current Assembly of First Nations. Francis Pegahmagabow MM & two bars (/ˌpɛɡəməˈɡæboʊ/; March 9, 1891 – August 5, 1952) was a Canadian First Nations soldier, politician and activist. He died of a heart attack at the age of 61, in 1952. He was also awarded a 1914–15 Star, the British War Medal and the Victory Medal. In 1967, Francis became a member of Canada’s Indian Hall of Fame, a display set up in Brantford , Ontario to highlight Indigenous leaders in Canadian history. [1] By this time, he had been promoted to the rank of corporal and during the battle he was recorded playing an important role as a link between the units on the 1st Battalion's flank. The Ghost of the Trenches. They directed that all correspondence, as of the spring of 1933, go through the Indian agent. Francis’ mother, Mary Contin, had also become ill from the same sickness. Francis Pegahmagabow from Canada National Archives. First awarded the Military Medal in 1916, he earned two bars for his excellence as sniper and scout in the battles of Ypres (1915), Francis Pegahmagabow (1889-1952), an Ojibwe of the Caribou clan, wasborn in Shawanaga First Nation, Ontario. After the war, he lived an active political life and championed the cause of the natives and war veterans. Koennecke, F., Francis Pegahmagabow (2020). H His father was a man of the First Nation and his mother of the First Nation, located further up Georgian Bay's north shore. [16], During World War II Pegahmagabow worked as a guard at a munitions plant near Nobel, Ontario, and was a Sergeant-major in the local militia. After joining the Canadian force he was based at CFB Valcartier. Francis Pegahmagabow is perhaps the best known Indigenous (Anishnaabe) soldier of the First World War. He died of a heart attack at the age of 61, in 1952. one of the first of more than 4000 Indigenous soldiers to volunteer for overseas service in the war. Francis’ mother, Mary Contin, had also become ill from the same sickness. In January 1912, Francis received the financial aid he sought and began Sometimes it seemed to be hard as a rock, at other times it appeared to contain nothing. [5] When Francis was three years old, his father died and his mother subsequently left him to return to her home in the Henvey Inlet First Nation. A married father of six children, Francis Pegahmagabow died on the Parry Island reserve in 1952 at the age of 61. Known as “Peggy” to his fellow soldiers, Francis was engaged in fierce fighting at the Second Battle of Ypres in April 1915, where the Germans used chlorine gas (see Canada and Gas Warfare) for the first time. Francis was When Francis was about As part of a national delegation in 1943, he took part in a demonstration on Parliament Hill, at Ypres, Francis was promoted to lance corporal in 1915. Chief Francis Pegahmagabow, 1889-1952; Chief Francis Pegahmagabow, 1889-1952. In. As a sniper in WW I, Francis Pegahmagabow was deadly accurate, and although difficult to substantiate, was credited with 378 kills. Francis practised a combination of Roman Catholicism and Anishinaabe spirituality (see Religion and Spirituality of Indigenous Peoples in Canada). [citation needed] The artist Tyler Fauvelle spent eight months sculpting the statue, which spent a further year in casting. [2] Later in life, he served as chief and a councillor for the Wasauksing First Nation, and as an activist and leader in several First Nations organizations. He had served for almost the whole war,[1] and had built a reputation as a skilled marksman. vocal advocate for Indigenous rights and self-determination. [14] First Nation members who served in the army during World War I were particularly active as political activists. At the start of the First World War in 1914, the Canadian government discouraged Indigenous peoples A bronze likeness of Company Sergeant-Major (CSM) Francis Pegahmagabow was unveiled June 21, 2016 on National Aboriginal Day in Parry Sound, Ontario, just a short drive from Sgt Pegahmagabow’s birthplace at Wasauksing First Nation. calling for the exemption of income tax and conscription for Indigenous peoples. [17], A married father of six children, Pegahmagabow died on the Parry Island reserve in 1952 at the age of 61. Francis Pegahmagabow (1889-1952), an Ojibwe of the Caribou clan, was born in Shawanaga First Nation, Ontario. Francis had intense arguments with Daly and other government agents. Victory Medal. Aboriginal soldier most highly decorated for bravery in Canadian military history and the most effective sniper of World War I Later in life, he served as chief and a councilor for the Wasauksing First Nation, and as an activist and leader in several First Nations organizations. Once in office he caused a schism in the band after he wrote a letter calling for certain individuals and those of mixed race to be expelled from the reserve. He died of a heart attack after suffering for years from badly damaged lungs. During the war, Francis acquired a fierce reputation among fellow soldiers as a deadly sniper; he was credited with about 378 kills. Quotes #1 An Ojibwa from the Parry Island Band in Ontario, he was an expert scout, sniper and marksman. 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